Report submitted by Diane E. Hill
Ball State University
Dr. Tillett made the point that the book is central to our culture and that library methodology evolved around the book, including cataloging rules, ISBD and MARC standards.
LC's copyright responsibilities created collections of various media which ultimately required cataloging and management. Cataloging of nonbook materials was first done in the Copyright Office and practice evolved from the need to record information required for legal purposes. Map cataloging at LC was the first to evolve into a standardized practice, followed by educational films, sound recordings, then prints and photographs.
The Anglo-American Cataloging Rules were initially developed in the 1970s with book materials as the standard. Some of the elements required were not available on the AV materials. The cataloging community reacted quite unfavorably. During the 1980s, guidelines and rules were developed for the various formats based on the standards, but allowing flexibility to meet the needs of the special formats. The primary problem with cataloging is the speed with which technology changes, creating the need to adjust quickly.
Recent developments at LC include the dismantling of the machine- readable materials reading room in 1996, extending the deadline for eliminating arrearages to the year 2005, increased reliance on the nation's libraries through the implementation of copy cataloging, cooperative cataloging programs and development of core bibliographic record standards, and the development of form/genre terms.
The future will see the cataloging of electronic information and evolving needs for controlled vocabulary. An international conference will be held in October of 1997 to address concerns about AACR2R, including content vs carrier, multiple versions, main entry and corporate body issues. Focus will continue to be placed on cooperative cataloging as well as the harmonization of MARC formats among countries.
Click to see workshop handouts
Cataloging Internet Resources: Findings and
Keynote Address by Erik Jul, OCLC
Report submitted by Diane E. Hill
Ball State University
The project was motivated by the possibilities and problems of applying AACR2R and MARC to Internet resources. It faced three major complaints: 1. there's nothing worth cataloging; 2. the information is here today, gone tomorrow; and 3. AACR2R/MARC won't work. The project determined that there is plenty to catalog; AACR2R/MARC worked relatively effectively, though there are some concerns; and the records are more stable than the Internet as a whole.
To explore the catalog of 6000 Internet cataloging records created by the Intercat Project, log on using: http://orc.rsch.oclc.org:6990/. To help solve the problem of instability, the PURL (Persistent Uniform Resource Locator) was developed to help track a URL which changes location. This can be accomplished because the bibliographic record and the resource are in the same medium; therefore, they can interact by having the URL or PURL in an 856 field. This has never been possible before.
Mr. Jul challenged catalogers to identify one electronic resource in their local community and catalog it. This would explode the number of available records.
Mr. Jul suggested that only two mistakes can be made at this point: 1. thinking cataloging is the solution, and 2. thinking it's not part of the solution. A system must be developed which leverages what we have now, extending it to possibilities for future solutions.
Sound Recording Cataloging Workshop
Jay Weitz, OCLC
Report submitted by Kay Kinnear
Birmingham Public Library
Recordings are usually cataloged as a unit. AACR2R does allow for separate descriptions; however, LC does not do this.
In the fixed field, type "j" is used for music; type "i" is for sound effects, bird and animal calls, physical exercise instructions with musical accompaniment, stories read over incidental music and plays with incidental music. Filmstrips/slides with accompanying sounds use type "g". Read- along materials are cataloged as nonmusical sound recordings (type "i") with accompanying text. Recorded theses are cataloged as sound recordings (type as appropriate).
Serial sound recordings should be cataloged as sound recordings (type as appropriate) with bib level as "s" (Optionally, use the 006 for the serial aspect). Nonprint serials are NO LONGER PERMITTED on the serials format as allowable duplicates.
Sources of information:
For compact discs or cassettes, consider anything seen through the container (including the front cover of booklets) as "on the container." If there are two or more chief sources, treat as a single source. If a collective title can be found on accompanying material or container, treat this as the chief source and make a note indicating the title source. When trying to decide on a collective title, do not consider as a collective title one that consists of the type plus one of more of these identifying elements: serial number, opus number, thematic index number, key (e.g. Concertos no. 1 & 2).
Inputting new records:
These differences justify new records: CD vs LP, 10 vs 12 in., 33 1/3 vs 78 rpm, stereo vs mono, analytical vs comprehensive entry, specific differences in music publisher numbers, different dates of publication. The absence or presence of multiple publishers, distributors etc. does not justify new record input as long as one on the item matches one on the record and vice versa. Remember: when in doubt edit the existing record. Even if a new record is justified, it doesn't mean it is required. One can always edit for local holdings.
Varying forms of title (246):
Use for uncontrolled variants of the titles for the entire item and also for variants of the first title when a collective title is lacking. Variants of other titles should be placed in 740 fields. Second indicators after 246 tags specify the source of the variant title (cover titles, parallel titles, etc.). Unspecified variants of the title will have second indicator "blank".
The bracketed GMD follows subfields $a, $n, or $p and precedes subfields $b and $c.
Do not put LCSH headings "compact disc," "audiocassettes," etc. on records for the recordings themself. If you choose to apply the heading contrary to LC's policies, do not add to the master records--edit for local use.
"Arranged" qualifies the medium arranged to, not the medium arranged from.
All sorts of "events" dates may be available, but REMEMBER: LPs were first produced in 1948, reel to reel in 1954, audiocassettes in 1965, compact discs in 1982. Any earlier dates CANNOT be considered a publication date.
Click to see workshop handouts (package 2)
Report submitted by Harold L. Temple
College of DuPage
The exact function of terms, persons and corporate bodies in the production of videos is frequently unclear. Names appearing in the 245 must have some kind of "overall responsibility" (LCRI 7.1F1). If they don't, consider a 508 (LCRI 7.7B6). Transcribe information for the 245 as found in the item.
In online systems which search on the publisher's name, shortening it to "The Dept.," etc., makes it unsearchable. Dates may represent original production, release, distribution or only package design copyright. If a reissue, record the latest date and the date of original production. Include variant dates in a note so that the user can recognize the item. Add an 006 for an accompanying "book," but not for a "guide."
A television series, subseries, number, and episode title may be given in several correct ways in the 245, 440, or 730. All may appear in the 245, or the 245 may begin with subseries or episode title. It depends on the item in hand and how best to provide access for ease of use. Including everything in the 245 brings together all episodes in one place and, if numbered, in order of broadcast. Use of the 440 or 730 depends upon how the item in hand was issued.
Although some online systems display notes in numeric order, follow the order prescribed in AACR2R when creating a new master record. Put "VHS" etc. in the 538 as the first note. "Closed-captioned ..." and "Audio described" go in the 546. A 520 should be brief and neutral. Numbers for the 020, 024, or 028 (40) do not belong in a 500 note. Catalog a serial video in the visual format adding an 006 for its seriality.
Click to see workshop handouts
Report submitted by Peggy Bordley
University of the South
A work should be cataloged under its title proper if the personal authorship is unknown; added entries should be made for all "openly named persons or corporate bodies" with some exceptions. He emphasized that judgment must be used in deciding whether to include producers, directors, etc. As is true for videorecordings of all types, many production companies exist as corporate bodies only long enough to produce the film in question. This makes the credits very important.
Mr. Harwood discussed the credits for cataloging videorecordings when the credits precede or follow the title of the chief source; they are generally not considered as part of the title proper. He gave 3 exceptions: 1. when the credit is within the title, 2. when the credit is a "fanciful statement aping as a credit", or 3. when the credit is represented by a possessive preceding the remainder of the title. Attendees were referred to LCRI7.1B1.
The summary note was also discussed by the group and the importance of having concise, objective summaries was stressed. Participants were urged not to rely solely on the statements provided with the video by the company. "Include the who, what, when, and where as appropriate." Other notes discussed included: putting ratings information in the audience field, giving "History notes" if they are indicated, and choosing the date of publication.
Mr. Harwood stressed that the cataloging of video material requires good judgment by the cataloger in choosing the information to be included and deciding how it should be used. Some things will be subject to individual interpretation. Some choices will depend on the automation system being used and the individual library practices.
Click to see workshop handouts
Report submitted by Sandy Colby
Louisiana Department of Education
Ms. Neumeister gave an overview and history of OCLC's Intercat Cataloging Project. When cataloging Internet resources, she said that a question that arises is: How should we go about cataloging the Internet in the same way as traditional formats? A history of the Internet Cataloging Project may be accessed at the following URL:
In attempting to catalog Internet resources, many issues were addressed including: whether to catalog Internet resources at all, and at what level? "We tried to predict which level would be most helpful to our users," said Ms. Neumeister.
The next step was trying to define what types of files should be cataloged. It was determined that resources of local interest would be cataloged including: bibliographies, electronic listservs (the University at Buffalo has more than 275 locally-maintained discussion lists), local library guides, research centers, Web pages of local interest including the Buffalo Bills and the Buffalo Free-Net, among others. Every listowner was contacted to verify information; listowner responses were at times slow.
Cataloging records can be posted to the INTERCAT and AUTOCAT lists for review, authentication, and recommendations for revisions. Some of the issues addressed on the INTERCAT list have included questions about what to do about URLs that no longer exist or aren't "live"; MARC tagging; applicability of AACR2R; determining HEX equivalents; what constitutes a title; where to take the title from on the Web site; and how to address multiple sources on the bibliographic record.
Ms. Neumeister reviewed some of the questions that had arisen in the
Intercat list whose archives are available for review at the URL:
She referred to the following resources that may be of assistance when cataloging Internet resources:
Works of Art Workshop
Dr. William R. McCarter
North Texas Institute for Educators on the Visual Arts
University of North Texas
Report submitted by Eric Childress, OCLC
The barriers to the systematic and routine use of art images in classroom instruction (most notably in using historical images for art history and art survey courses) faced by teachers and professors are numerous and difficult to surmount. Yet the benefits of use of high quality reproductions in face-to-face teaching are significant. Better still, easy, self-directed access to images and relevant biographical, historical data etc. by students via the World Wide Web is demonstrably a superior educational experience. A recent study of 6th graders by the Institute revealed that students who used the Web to research works of art and artists led to research reports that displayed dramatically richer vocabulary, length, and intensity when compared to comparable work done using standard library resources. It appears that the students spent almost 50% more time on the research, following threads of personal interest on the Web; and without hesitation, often expanded their research through initiating e-mail dialogues with curators and art historians they came across in their Web travels.
The barriers to bringing art images to educational venues include: 1. The difficulty in locating a suitable or even any copy of the desired work(s); 2. An understandable but frustrating resistance by museums to permit casual use of images (museums seem reasonably open to licensing images for use in textbooks, but are reluctant to license digital images--for fear of losing control both of the intellectual property, but also of the ability to assure that the color, etc. of the reproduction is true to the original); 3. The absence of dependable, findable, authoritative, historical, biographical, etc. information to provide an appropriate-to-the-user context to any given image. Standard paths such as the preparation of art survey textbooks, reproduction of images on slides, and the recent use of CD-ROMs remain useful, but have inherent limitations: gaining copyright privileges is labor-intensive and expensive (McCarter estimated that privileges for the images used in his recently published text, Living with Art, cost approximately $100,000); the teacher and student are often frustrated by the linear, pre-assembled nature of these offerings when trying to pursue themes and topics that cross or fall outside the approaches offered; access to current works by living artists is invariably unsatisfactory and quickly dated.
The failings of existing art history texts and slide sets, etc. is being exacerbated by a momentum-gaining new school of art history education (Post-modernist) which de-emphasizes traditional chronologically-based divisions of art schools and movements in favor of thematically-based, historical/social place-and-setting-cognizant approaches to instruction and exploration of art. For this newer school, the non-linear, serendipitous connection approach of the World Wide Web is far better suited.
Dr. McCarter's lively, informative, enjoyable presentation, punctuated by an engaging dialogue with the participants about libraries and cataloging was informative and inevitably leads to questions about how well traditional library cataloging--especially the access afforded by LCSH--of graphics and art-related materials serves the art historian.
Representing Moving Images Workshop
Abby Goodrum, University of North Texas
Report submitted by Mary S. Konkel
University of Akron
Images are difficult to represent linguistically since color, motion, and spatial relationships are experienced differently by each individual. Imagine the color red and its numerous hues. You may see red as a ruby; I may see red like a candy apple. The concept of a "salient still" (an image much like the movie advertising poster which is picked to represent a whole item) was also introduced.
Ms. Goodrum described the image analysis process, which is sort of a nontraditional way of cataloging. Image analysis is done at set intervals on hours of film or video, for example, 6 hours of space shuttle footage. The reviewer would look for a threshold of change, for instance, the door of the docking bay opening at hour 3. This would be a significant point of description for the video if the rest of the footage was shot while the astronauts were sleeping and nothing else interesting happened.
Representing image files is a slow and tedious task as the size of the files are generally awesome; however, associations like NASA have a great need to get descriptive information on their "pictures" in and out of their computer databases using this image indexing. I, for one, think Ms. Goodrum should go to the head of her class for tackling this one. I thoroughly enjoyed a peek at futuristic cataloging.
Report submitted by John E. Felbinger
Ms. Jizba began the presentation with a brief history of theGuidelines and their relation to MARC format and AACR2R. First presented at the OLAC Conference in 1990, the Guidelines were published in 1994. In 1995, ALA/CC:DA called for review comments through December 1996.
For cataloging, the computer files format is the appropriate format, using record type code "i". Use of the Guidelines has been implemented on the major utilities; for OCLC, Bibliographic Formats and Standards documentation 3.8 is standard. The Guidelines serve as an auxiliary tool to supplement the descriptive rules of AACR2R, though there is not always a one-to-one correlation in their respective formats. Ms. Jizba presented the salient differences between AACR2R and the Guidelines, in that the latter considers the entire work as the chief source of information; that a single or multiple 300 fields can be used; and that three 5XX notes for the source of title, source of edition statement, and systems requirements are required. She also strongly recommended the use of summary notes.
Ms. Sandberg-Fox then presented the definitions for what determines a work as interactive multimedia: specifically, a work must exhibit both 1. user-controlled, non-linear navigation using computer technology; and 2. a combination of two or more media that the user manipulates to control the order and/or nature of the presentation. Several practical applications of these principles followed, with the final caveat of not cataloging an item as interactive multimedia if the matter is doubtful.
Ms. Jizba continued with practical applications of the descriptive rules. There were some special highlights. The entire work is the chief source of information, relying first on internal, then external sources of information. The GMD is "interactive multimedia". For the date of publication, the latest date found on the work is appropriate.
Ms. Sandberg-Fox followed, discussing the 300 field (physical description), using either a single 300 or multiple 300s to describe the work. For most libraries this will depend on local policy. She did note that the Library of Congress is using the Guidelines for multiple carriers, and Chapter 9 of AACR2R for single carriers. Series (4XXs) are to be treated as in other formats. Notes (5XXs) are optional except for the source of title, source of edition statement and systems requirements; summary notes are being used with greater frequency. She suggested two methods for systems requirements (538): a single note for a single carrier; and either a single or several notes for multiple carriers. In discussing access points, she stated that the relevant rules of AACR2R, Chapter 21 are appropriate. For subject headings, LC has just approved the new subdivision "--Interactive multimedia", and this should be used rather than the subdivisions "--Software" or "--Databases". Finally, she presented arguments for classifying the multimedia work, and not under QA76.76.I59, which is for software programs.
In conclusion, Ms. Jizba and Ms. Sandberg-Fox suggested future developments of the Guidelines in comparison with the proposed ISBD for electronic resources, briefly illustrating the significant differences between them.
Toys, Games, Kits Workshop
Nancy Olson, Mankato State University
Report submitted by Mary S. Konkel
University of Akron
In order to adequately describe a puppet, for example, you need to try it out, see how it moves and determine its physical characteristics. These might include that the item 1. is right or left-handed, 2. is for a child or an adult hand, 3. has velcro removable parts, 4. makes noise or plays music, 5. can or cannot open and close its mouth, 6. has a particular feel or smell, or 7. is dry cleanable only. These are features you wouldn't necessarily discover unless you examined, a.k.a. played with, the item. NOW I know why those public library catalogers are always so happy.
Ms. Olson reviewed the definitions for kit and three-dimensional artifacts and realia. She also reminded us that even though there are specific chapters in AACR2R for these formats, if you don't find what you're looking for in those chapters, don't forget to look at Chapter One for cataloging assistance.
As we covered the various aspects of kits, games and toys, Ms. Olson provided us with very touchable examples. We examined chess games, Walt Disney video kits, and puppets. Along the way we learned a bit more about the problems encountered in compiling the components of a bibliographic record for these items. Some of the problems we discussed were: 1. elusive ISBNs only found on shrinkwrap, hangtags, or washing labels, 2. using multiple 300s versus a single composite 300 for physical description of a kit, 3. edition statements found on games and yes, even Barbie dolls, and 4. the ever fuzzy "how to determine whether you have a kit or not."
We ended the workshop with a very practical exercise testing our cataloging and presentation skills. Working in small groups, we received a puppet (my table got a cool red fuzzy lobster hand puppet even though I secretly coveted the Winnie-the-Pooh with the little red T-shirt that the table behind me had) to catalog. Our bibliographic record was composed on a transparency which, when completed, was presented to the rest of the class via overhead. Of course, we had to fully demonstrate our puppets as we covered the rationale for our cataloging decisions.
Ms. Olson also provided us with handy excerpts from her book,Cataloging of Audiovisual Materials, which shall soon be available in its 4th edition. As an aside, for all of you trivia buffs, Soldier Creek Press got its name from the creek that ran through Ms. Olson's family farm in Minnesota. What a delightful way to receive continuing education. Now if I could only convince my science bibliographers at the University of Akron that they need dinosaur puppets, spaceships, and Mr. Molecule puppets to support the curriculum, I'd really be a happy cataloger.
Report submitted by Eric Childress, OCLC
In a sold-out session, veteran catalogers Cathy Gerhart and Anke Gray offered an excellent and informative workshop on map cataloging. They began with a review of the key printed tools available to help the map cataloger (Cartographic Materials: a Manual of Interpretation for AACR2. 1982; Map Cataloging Manual. 1991; "Cataloguing and Classification" / Mary Larsgaard in Information Sources in Cartography. 1991) and instruction in how to use an indispensable plastic scale indicator (order from Dept. of Geography; Memorial University of Newfoundland; St. John's, Newfoundland A1B 3XP Canada) and included a most helpful presentation (and handout) on the major differences between book and map cataloging. Ms. Gray and Ms. Gerhart covered the basics of map cataloging superbly with just the right measure of humor, and a visual feast of sample maps to illustrate map types and map cataloging issues.
Participants learned the definitions of cartographic terms such as scale and projection, worked through a fun and instructive exercise in scale determination and conversion, and were led through the intricacies of doing simple (and not-so-simple) descriptive map cataloging and USMARC coding of map bibliographic records. The workshop participants were provided with a very useful set of handouts that covered basic resources on map cataloging and map librarianship, projections and coordinates, and a hard-to-come-by handout on how to date roadmaps (including a table of codes used by major roadmap makers that the savvy map cataloger can use to date roadmaps!).
Some gems: Atlases are now cataloged on the maps' USMARC workform; the Cataloger's Desktop includes the Map Cataloging Manual with post-1991 revisions, and LC's geographic Cutters for the U.S. and the rest of the world will also be issued this route; maps always have scale--but a map's scale is not always expressly stated (and even when it is, the cataloger will sometimes have to express it differently in the bibliographic record) or may be stated multiple times in several different ways; longitude and latitude are expressed in degrees, minutes and seconds (but don't use a quotation mark to indicate seconds: use the correct diacritic--try the special character set in PRISM, or choose the Russian language diacritic); measuring dimensions can be complicated--usually a simple measure of height x width (from the reading position), but one measures within the "neat" line for maps with a legend (or inside the neat line except for the portion of the cartographic data that violates the neat line - whew!). LC is interested in feedback from the field on possible revisions to AACR2R rules related to cartographic materials (according to Barbara Tillett, LC CPSO); the 006 field can be a very useful way to identify records for items which are not maps but include significant cartographic material (e.g., a map in a pocket); the chief source for a map is the entire map (including both sides of the map and that teeny-tiny type that's hard to read!) and catalogers should be alert for the name of the cartographer appearing only as a signature. Maps from the Central Intelligence Agency frequently can only be identified by their distinctive numbering system; the main entry should be CIA.
Click to see workshop handouts
Archives & Photographers Workshop
Richard Pearce-Moses, Heard Museum
Report submitted by Rebecca L. Lubas
Bracken Library, Ball State University
Mr. Pearce-Moses spoke to us with the benefit of extensive experience in archival collections and much experience in training people to organize and catalog collections. He usually gives workshops to non-catalogers, so he was relieved not to have to explain MARC tagging to us! Rather, we could dive into the heart of the matter. Often, we learned, knowing who put the collection of materials together and why they did so is critical to understanding how the items might be used. He contrasted this method of organizing archives to creating a subject collection, where photographs may be organized by topic rather than by the collecting entity. Choosing a method of organization depends on how your collection will be used. We learned the distinction between a photo archive and an image library--the former is used for research while the latter provides specific images that may be used for their graphic content rather than historical value.
For those of us that have not cataloged archival materials before, cataloging archival photo collections will require a change in perspective. Mr. Pearce-Moses provided us with that much-needed perspective to help us meet the needs of our libraries.
Click to see workshop handouts
Report submitted by Vicki Unruh Parke
North Dakota State Library
I personally learned many new details and issues to consider while cataloging computer files. An example concerns the title: when the title consists of contrived words such as dBASE IV, transcribe the title as it appears; do not capitalize the first word but follow the publisher's intent. Another tidbit of information is that LC is calling the paper that comes inside the CD-ROM jewel case the "insert."
One issue which was discussed concerns works which contain disks for both Macintosh and IBM-compatible PCs, or two different sizes of disks. LC's practice is to create one record if the disks are issued in the same container or two records if the disks are issued in separate containers. Another issue is that LC records only the highest level cited in the systems requirement note (538) though they have decided to record the highly recommended statements as well.
Subject analysis was only briefly discussed at this workshop, but the new Subject Cataloging Manual guideline H1520 was mentioned. It restricts the free floating subdivision "Databases" to actual databases--those that have logically interconnected data and not to text files such as directories.
Click to see workshop handouts (package 1)
Click to see workshop handouts (package 2)
Submitted by Virginia M. Berringer, University of Akron
Ann Caldwell, coordinator of the NACO-AV Funnel Project, distributed documentation (a very large, heavy binder) and presented a thorough introduction to the guidelines and procedures required for establishing headings and creating records for inclusion in the Library of Congress' Name Authority File.
It was a very full day, packed with information, from the details of how the Funnel Project would work through specific instructions on creating and documenting headings for personal, corporate and geographic names and references. Ms. Caldwell did an heroic job of condensing all this into a single day's training.
Creation of records will begin as soon as the authorization process is complete. Each library will be assigned a special NUC symbol for its AV cataloging unit and each participant will need a unique OCLC authorization in order to create authority records. At first all records will go into a save file to be checked by Ms. Caldwell before they are added to the national database. After each trainee has successfully completed a specified number of acceptable records, he or she will be authorized to enter records directly into the file. As these initial members of the NACO-AV Funnel Project achieve independence, catalogers from other AV cataloging units will be trained. Both RLIN and OCLC libraries are welcome to apply.
Through the efforts of OLAC and CAPC, these catalogers will soon be helping to provide the national-level authority records that have been sorely missed since the Library of Congress discontinued its Data Sheet Program some years ago.
Ann Caldwell adds:
Following the completion of some electronic "paperwork," you will begin to see authority records for headings generated from cataloging of audiovisual materials. Up to now, these headings have been conspicuously absent from the authority file. The NACO-AV Funnel will nicely complement the work of the NACO-Music Project, providing what we hope to be nearly comprehensive coverage of headings for all non-print materials. The following codes in the 040 of authority records will identify the NACO-AV regions:
University of Akron, Audiovisual Cataloging OAkU-AV
Brown University, Non-Print Cataloging Unit RPB-NP
University of Georgia, AV Cataloging Unit GU-AV
Univ. of California, Riverside, AV Cataloging UnitCU-RivAV
UCLA Film and Television Archive CLU-FT
Johnson County Library (Overland Park, KS) AV Cat.KopJCAV
Rush University, McCormick Learning Resource Center ICRMMC
Questions about the project and comments on the records may be sent to the coordinator:
Poster Sessions Report
Submitted by Heidi Hutchinson
University of California, Riverside
Seven OLAC members set up poster sessions to be viewed following the Conference luncheon on Friday. The number was just right for the hour and a half allotted for visiting. Here's a brief rundown of what you would have encountered had you been there.
Sharon Almquist's (University of North Texas) display had the deceptively ho-hum title of "How Should I Catalog This Locally-Produced Multimedia Program on CD-ROM?" The program in question was a CD-ROM version of one of UNT's marvelous, locally-produced, touch-screen library guides. It turned out to be the most hands-on fun of all the poster sessions--people were quickly drawn into clicking through the pictures, maps, voices, videos, music, links, arrows and staff portraits of the multimedia kiosk program. At the same time, it presented the biggest challenge: a whiteboard next to the display provided felt pens and implored, "Catalog me!" By the end of the ninety minutes the board was covered with purple, red and yellow MARC fields full of cataloging advice. How much of this will ultimately become Sharon's cataloging record?
"A Holistic Approach to Extracting Data From Video Recordings for Cataloging" by J. Robert Willingham (Southeast Missouri State University) used two very different examples to show how to quickly and efficiently gather the data needed for the original cataloging of a videorecording from the videotape and its packaging. "Scan sources for data, transcribe data as found, and rearrange data for cataloging" were the basic three steps which Bob illustrated with his flip charts and his excellent handout. This is a resource to stash away for the next time we need to train a new AV cataloger!
And speaking of training a new AV cataloger, the step prior to that was illustrated nicely, as Marcia S. Trauernicht (Rochester Institute of Technology) presented us with a way of "Getting Started: Adding Non-Print Materials to the Collection." Your library administration has made the decision to add media and computer files to the collection. How do you integrate the cataloging and processing of these materials into your workflow? Sharing the recent experience of her own library's decision- making process, Marcia and her poster session suggested that the library determine the following before the items are even received: fullness of cataloging, audience, call number, location, loan period, housing, equipment needed in order to use the items, and processing and necessary backup copies. Excellent advice for any library.
A colorful clownish "book" dotted with little pockets containing real, removable parts drew the idle passers-by into Mary Konkel's (University of Akron) presentation titled "Pieces Parts in Pockets: Ideas for Accompanying AV." A video, a map, a chart, a sound disc, a sound cassette, a set of slides, a software diskette, a CD-ROM, and a compact disc peeked out of the pockets. Mary pointed out some real practical considerations of accompanying media: security, breakability, stealability. Two posters asked the questions "Keep apart? Or keep together?" and listed the factors to consider in making that decision. Inadequate packaging, security and damage control, open stacks storage, different circulation limits, shelving which won't accommodate various formats, unavailability of playback equipment and the need for a service point may encourage the library to store the items separately. On the other hand, flexible shelving might allow the library to keep the items together, closed stacks would keep them safe, and proximity to playback equipment (as in a media center) would make them usable and easier to access. Mary offered ideas for packaging and re-packaging, where to locate items, and how to incorporate the location information into notes on the cataloging records.
A terrifically realistic, three-dimensional image of a human leg looking for all the world like a beef shank caught my attention in one corner. "The NLM Visible Human Project," presented by Meredith Horan (National Library of Medicine), is one of the developments in NLM's digital image libraries. Thousands of digital (transverse CT, MRI and cryosection) images, taken at 1 mm intervals, combine to make up the Visible Human Male; in the case of the female, there will be even more images, taken at 0.5 mm intervals. Three-dimensional reconstructions will be accessible via the Internet and eventually linked to textual information, such as the names of the body parts. The final product will make the Visible Human print library and the image library into a single, unified resource for medical information. The many uses for this high-tech library, which include medical, artistic, and industrial, have yet to be explored. This poster session was truly a glimpse of things to come.
Ann Kietzman (Hartford County Library) presented us with a wonderful application of kits, that favorite format of AV catalogers, at her poster session entitled "Cheers for Children Health Information Kits." The kits were designed by the library to provide children and their families with information on a variety of health topics: doctor, dentist, surgery, hospital, AIDS, special needs, juvenile cancer, juvenile diabetes, heart and new baby. Age appropriate books, video and audio cassettes and realia targeting the preschooler through elementary school age child were assembled in tubs for the families to check out. Ann presented the challenges of circulating these kits and keeping track of all the component parts, which was solved by filing content sheets for each kit in a notebook at the circulation desk--and of course there is OCLC cataloging for all of them!
Locally produced videotapes, another cataloging challenge we've all wrestled with at one time or other, was the theme of the poster session entitled "Core-Level Cataloging of Class Videos; Collaboration and Cataloging," presented by Sung Ok Kim (Cornell University). The videos in question are the collection of the Hotel Library of Cornell University, which consists of 200 "class videos" used for courses in the School of Hotel Administration. The project at hand was to catalog all 200 of them, at 12 videos per week, using core level cataloging. In a cooperative effort that is worth emulating at our own institutions, the media cataloger and the AV manager of the Hotel Library worked together to develop the workflow for the cataloging process. The provision of data sheets by the AV manager containing all the information which the School felt was pertinent proved an invaluable, time-saving aid for the cataloger.
Rebecca L. Lubas
Bracken Library, Ball State University
The introductory keynote addresses highlighted a truth that I had already encountered: forms of communicating intellectual content are evolving more rapidly than many can figure out how to organize them. Nonprint catalogers have the privileged position of being among the first to work with cutting edge materials. The addresses impressed upon me the need for our profession to take charge of the organizing of these formats. The attitudes and outlooks of the fellow catalogers I met at the Conference indicated that we were doing just that. Not only are OLAC members willing to embrace new formats, but they are ready and willing to share their techniques with their colleagues. It was in this atmosphere that the workshops were conducted.
The workshops presented me with not only the expertise of the speakers, but that of my colleagues attending the workshops. These experiences demonstrated that nonprint catalogers are an inventive lot. One of my favorite rules-of-thumb that I picked up at Conference was "if there's not a rule in your chapter [of AACR2R], borrow from another chapter." We must be as creative as the items we catalog in order to present them to the library public.
The OLAC Conference gave me confidence. Not only did it give me the much-appreciated assurance that my cataloging didn't look like it was from too far afield, but it gave me confidence that I was part of a fine profession--one that has a place in the twenty-first century.