Electronic and Media Cataloging for the 21st Century
Saint Paul, Minnesota
September 27-29, 2002
Scholarship Recipient Report
Keynote Addresses and Plenary Session
Preconference and NACO Training
Access Points for Non-Human ActorsPoster Sessions
Scholarship Recipent Report
University of North Carolina at Wilmington
Attending the 2002 OLAC Conference was a valuable experience for me as a cataloger and a librarian, and one that will serve me well for years to come. In my letter of application I wrote that I believed the opportunity would "provide a critical opportunity for education and growth" and "help me to become a more productive and creative librarian". These goals were met and exceeded, and I returned to my library not only with new knowledge and confidence, but also with a strong sense of community within the world of "nonbook", "AV" or "special formats" cataloging.
Jean Weihs' keynote address was a highlight for me and began the Conference on an inspiring and thought-provoking note. Her experiences are fascinating and supremely relevant on so many levels: as a woman breaking ground in a "man's world", as a professional witnessing and effecting change over decades, and as a librarian grappling with the issue of nonbook formats in the changing catalog. The trails she blazed are inspirational, as is her call to action-- that each of us can (and do) make real contributions to the profession.
The workshop presenters' knowledge was impressive and their advice was practical (always a great combination). It was a thrill to attend the legendary Nancy Olson's Graphic Materials workshop; the scope of her wisdom was evident in every respect (for instance, she focused on how to catalog posters, but she took it to the next level and also focused on cataloging digitized versions of posters). Mary Larsgaard's Map Cataloging workshop was thorough in its concentration on the substantive changes in AACR2R Chapter 3. Although some people might not appreciate the differences between "Scale varies", "Scales differ" and "Scales vary", I felt right at home in a roomful of catalogers who not only got it, but understood Mary's clear explanations for when to use which and why. Although I will admit that my head was spinning a bit upon exiting Steve Miller's Electronic Resources workshop, I felt challenged and eager to put the new rules into practice (after December 1st, of course). Steve did a masterful job of corralling a huge amount of information into a clear presentation. The changes in Chapters 9 and 12 are so vast that I am grateful for this introduction among my OLAC peers, and for the knowledge that the OLAC List will provide an opportunity for give and take as these changes approach. And finally, as a former film archivist and lifelong movie fanatic, I reserve a special place in my heart for Jane Johnson's AMIM workshop. Cataloging an episode of Mister Peepers according to AMIM and then comparing the results with AACR2R rules… I honestly cannot imagine what could be more enjoyable and thoroughly fascinating.
The Conference also allowed me to take a tangible professional leap; I was pleased to present a poster with my colleague Annie Wu. This opportunity was another valuable component in my Conference experience. I was gratified by the interest shown and for the thoughtful questions asked. The poster session turned out to be one of the highlights of the Conference for me, in large measure due to the chance to speak to so many people about our experiences with video cataloging and classification.
I enjoyed every aspect of my first OLAC Conference. From Ann Caldwell's NACO-AV Funnel training to Charles Thomas's session on the IMAGES Project to the CAPC meeting, I watched, I listened and I learned. My pen was never far from my pad. The exposure to peers and leaders in the field was a valuable chance to soak up information, creativity and energy, and to recognize anew how important our work is to the profession and to our patrons. I have just unwrapped my AACR2 2002 revision. I am ready to proceed with a new confidence, bolstered by my OLAC Conference experience.
Keynote Addresses and Plenary Session
A Media Cataloguer's Long Journey to the Twenty First Century
A Keynote Presentation by Jean Weihs
--reported by Verna UrbanskiWhen Jean started out in the profession, librarians were mostly single women. Single because, like many other professions in the 1950s, once it became known that a female librarian was married, it was expected than she would want to focus solely on her family. She was expected to surrender her career, or, if continuing to work, she was to be paid less than before because (after all) she had her husband’s income to depend on!!! These comments set the stage for an enjoyable and informative presentation by one of our best media librarians. Jean’s presentation described the world where she began her journey of discovery. Men were quickly promoted on the job. The public perceived no difference between librarians and library workers – they all just checked out books, right? (Scary---not much has changed in the past fifty years!!)
University of North Florida
In 1966, Jean became a media cataloger for a school board in the Toronto area. In 1967, she began to catalog AV materials only to discover that there were no definitive written guidelines for cataloging AV. The Anglo-American Cataloging Rules published in 1967, documented different routines for different media. In later years, C. Sumner Spalding, general editor of the 1967 rules, revealed to Jean that he locked himself away in his office in the Library of Congress and wrote Part III of the 1967 AACR on his own in just two weeks. Part III was based on three sets of separate rules used at the Library of Congress for different categories of materials. Part III was "used by few libraries and condemned by many!!" Because the Library of Congress was not permitted to acquire kits, LC cataloged the visual item as the dominant medium, e.g. filmstrips, with accompanying materials.
After canvassing her fellow catalogers in hopes of finding some universal methodology at work, Jean’s worst fears were confirmed. There were no existing standards for the consistent description of various media materials. There were a variety of local circulating systems with various treatments for different materials and there were storeroom collections that were uncataloged and, for the most part, unknown and unusable. After extensive consultation with cataloging colleagues it became obvious that they all were in a similar situation. After much trial and error, in 1970 Jean and two colleagues produced a preliminary edition of their now standard text, Nonbook Materials: the Organization of Integrated Collections. This book served as a rallying point to announce the relevance of AV materials in collections and as a focal point for discussions on how to catalog media materials. It introduced the concept of a single record for different formats. The 1973 edition included the first occurrence of the concept of entry under performer. It was primarily through the leadership of Jean and the success of her book that the treatment of media materials became a serious issue in the second edition of AACR and its refinement AACR2R. With the emergence of the notion that it was good to catalog from the item in hand, the description of media materials began to mature. Today, following the initiatives begun at the 1997 Toronto conference on the principles and future of AACR, media cataloging stands at another turning point. The addition of electronic and digital formats brings new considerations to the forefront.
When a person has long involvement in a specialty, it is easy to see the same controversies emerge periodically. As colleagues leave the profession or move to other assignments, the cataloging issues fade, re-emerge and are recast. Jean concluded her remarks by emphasizing the importance of developing and adhering to standards. She urged catalogers to resist the temptation to catalog to suit our patrons but to rather adhere to national standards. She asked that we speak out on problems that we see. Committees and policy-making groups need more than ever to hear from the cataloger on the street. Even though it may be intimidating, it is important to put yourself and your views forward, especially for those working in small libraries. It is all too easy for national rules and policy to be set only in terms of what works in large organizations and libraries. Jean commended OLAC for its excellent work in the field and declared it to be the best library organization available. Jean’s career is a testament to the importance of coming to an agreement, nurturing consensus and standing up to be counted. This was a great speech. I am sorry you all couldn’t have heard it in person.
IMAGES: A Metadata Sharing Initiative at the University of Minnesota
A Plenary Presentation by Chuck Thomas
University of Minnesota Libraries
--reported by Verna UrbanskiChuck Thomas was the second plenary speaker of the conference and described the building of a metadata sharing community at the University of Minnesota. On a campus as large as the University of Minnesota, there are lots of collections of data that have accumulated without any coordination. Departments and researchers had tried different approaches to storing their computerized information. This led to a lack of documentation about the data and made interoperability nearly impossible. Databases full of interesting and useful information existed in isolation. There was heterogeneous content under varying degrees of content control. Since the audiences for the data varied, the organization and presentation of it also varied. There was a serious need for someone to apply consistent principles of design and form a metadata sharing community. A metadata sharing community is based on a consistent design principle and provides functionality, support and content control. It is information and resource discovery in a distributed environment.
University of North Florida
In a decentralized environment there are little silos of information that are underutilized if not shared with a larger audience. IMAGES (Images Metadata Aggregator for Enhanced Searching) is intended to link sources of information while providing a consistent, easy to understand format. Since much of this information resides outside the library, the approach and methodologies employed need to be universally appealing to non-librarians, while still fulfilling the rigorous descriptive traditions that make libraries such a success in information handling. Otherwise, there is a real danger that departments will not cooperate with exposing their data to a larger audience.
Since the project is intended to provide a larger audience for isolated but desirable stores of information, one of the main challenges of the IMAGES project is to discover existing information and persuade the current holders to participate in the project. For digital collections to be sustainable, staff need multiple skills and the latest technology. This often is not available out in the departments. Even when holders of the information recognize that they do not have the resources to provide the data the exposure it deserves, it is hard for them to overcome their fear of loss of control.
The IMAGES initiative works to find solutions to this information sharing dilemma. IMAGES staff determine the scope of the information, try to anticipate the needs of the users of the information while serving the dual purpose of both delivery and management. Some of the success of the initiative comes down to personal negotiations. Data must be massaged. IMAGES staff work with academic department staff to train them in the use of record editing software and then continue to serve as consultants to the department when needed. All of these activities serve as the beginning foundation for a future of cooperation across the campus. There is much to be done to promote the IMAGES initiative, especially outreach efforts and training programs to help faculty learn how to build a sustainable collection. As with any complex undertaking, there are unresolved issues most important of which is a new role for libraries in hosting this data and training department staff to produce the descriptions. Libraries must also discover how best to integrate this new type of diverse information with their traditional (and sometimes not so traditional) resources.
Closing Keynote Address
Presented by Suzanne Pilsk
Smithsonian Institution Libraries
--reported by Kelley McGrath Suzanne Pilsk gave a creative and thought-provoking presentation on her reactions to the OLAC Conference and some of the issues facing catalogers today. She began by discussing what images might be used to represent cataloging or a cataloging department, but did not settle on a single image. She then captured some of the highlights of various workshops and events that took place during the conferences through photographs and anecdotes. She also interwove her thoughts on current issues facing the cataloging profession and ways that cataloging could be improved. She described the feeling that many catalogers might have of being "Alice in Wonderland" as the world of cataloging becomes "curiouser and curiouser" in our interesting and rapidly changing times, but concluded that catalogers have the knowledge and ability to meet the challenges of providing access to the wide range of materials available in today’s libraries.
Ball State University
Preconference and NACO Training
SCCTP Electronic Serials Cataloging Workshop
Presented by Cecilia Genereux
University of Minnesota Libraries
--reported by Lisa O'HaraThe Electronic Serials Cataloging Workshop, designed by Steve Shadle (University of Washington) and Les Hawkins (Library of Congress) and delivered by Cecilia Genereux of the University of Minnesota Libraries, was an excellent introduction to and discussion of cataloging electronic serials. The goals of the workshop were to introduce participants to electronic serials, different approaches to providing access to them, some of the problems that arise in cataloging them, and various ways of handling these problems.
University of Manitoba Libraries
In the first section of the workshop different types of e-serials, including those "born digital" and those available through aggregators, were identified. The differences between electronic serials and integrating resources were explored and participants were given examples of e-resources and asked to define them as either serials or integrating resources.
The second section dealt with original cataloging of e-serials with a discussion of AACR2R (2002) and the applicable MARC21 fields, as well as CONSER practice. This was particularly helpful as it gave a step-by-step description of creating a record for an e-serial and highlighted some of the differences between cataloging print serials and cataloging e-serials. Participants worked in small groups to create an original record for an e-serial and then discussed the process together.
Aggregators were discussed in the third section, particularly the different ways to provide access to e-serials found in aggregators including single versus separate records in the catalog, using e-journal management systems such as Serials Solutions, or openURL vendors such as SFX, and creating separate databases. The subsequent section built on this with a more in-depth examination of various e-serial cataloging practices, including the single record approach, separate record approach, and reproduction cataloging.
The final sections dealt with characteristics and problems specific to e-serials and covered changes that affect cataloging, such as change of online location, change of format and title changes. Ways in which different libraries might deal with different aspects of e-serial cataloging based on their ILSs, their institutional histories or local practices, and staff time and availability were also highlighted. The workshop ended with an examination of six case studies where some additional problematic characteristics of e-serial cataloging were found. These included e-serials where the serial title lacked a dedicated page, where there were multiple language issues available, where there was an online supplement to the print serial, e-serials with problematic URLs, and e-serials accessed through more than one aggregator.
Cecilia presented the information in a thoughtful, thorough manner and was very knowledgeable in dealing with questions that arose. The exercises were a great opportunity to get some hands-on experience and to get feedback from other catalogers who are dealing with the same types of materials. Participants learned a great deal and came away with some food for thought and maybe some new ideas on how to handle e-serials at their institutions.
** Handouts provided only to participants
NACO-AV Funnel Training
Presented by Ann Caldwell
--reported by Joan Colquhoun McGormanAnn Caldwell led a full day training session to prepare nine new participants for the NACO-AV Funnel Project. Each participant had applied in advance for new MARC21 symbols to be used for the authorities that they create for this project.
Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary
Each participant was responsible for bringing all the required training materials and documentation printed from the NACO Website. Most of us had brought an extra suitcase. Two participants (from the same library) brought a laptop with which they accessed the necessary documentation during the day.
A tremendous amount of material was covered in a very clear and well-organized way. The importance of complying with the cataloging rules and details of the MARC format was stressed. The new participants will be contributing authorities for all kinds of name headings. Subject heading authorities were not included at this time.
All catalogers of AV material owe thanks to Ann Caldwell for her leadership of this project.
** Handouts provided only to participants
Creating Annotations for NonBook Materials
Presented by Donald Clay Johnson
Ames Library of South Asia, University of Minnesota
--reported by Jeannette HoIn this workshop, Donald Clay Johnson led the participants in a discussion about the process of creating annotations for nonbook materials. The discussion focused primarily on Websites. He began by introducing his role as the South Asia Specialist at the Digital Asia Library <http://digitalasia.library.wisc.edu/> where he edits annotations for Websites to be added to its collection. He then asked participants to critique examples of annotations for Websites and books contained on two handouts. At the end of the workshop, he led the participants in creating annotations based on Web page printouts contained in a third handout.
Texas A&M University
It was agreed that annotations need to be succinct, factual, and objective in order to be included as summary notes in catalog records. In addition, annotations should describe resources in enough detail to help readers make informed decisions about whether to use them. In particular, workshop participants noted that the first annotation for an organization’s Website merely described the organization without describing what was on the actual site. According to Johnson, an effective annotation for an agency’s Website should do the following:
Johnson stressed that creating effective annotations is an art, not a science. Catalogers should keep the questions, "Who, what, when, where, and why" in mind, even though not all of them may apply to a particular resource. Catalogers should also seek to bring out information that is unique to a geographic region.
- It should allow readers to rapidly identify the type of organization being described by the Website;
- It should describe what readers will find once they link to the Website, including its features, and give them a sense of why they would want to see it.
Participants discussed how annotations should avoid the use of emotion-based words that express value judgments (e.g., "stupendous," "horrendous," etc.) and to avoid quoting directly from Websites and book jackets, since these sources tend to use excessive emotional language to promote the resources they describe. In addition, they may not present accurate information. For instance, Johnson commented that catalogers should be alert to information on Websites that may seem illogical (a site, for example, which claims a two-year-old organization already has 5,000 publications).
Workshop participants also considered ways to make annotations succinct. It was agreed that long, wordy annotations would only increase the number of false hits during keyword searches. Annotations for Websites should only report information that is expected to remain stable and omit details that may change over time (e.g., number of publications, number of departments of an agency, etc.). As the content of Websites are continually changing, an annotation only describes a site at a single point in time. This fact makes it extremely important to include the date the cataloger viewed the resource in the catalog record. In addition, annotations for fictional works should indicate that they are fiction, but should not contain so much detail as to give away the entire plot.
The pros and cons of including important terms not represented by controlled vocabulary were also discussed. Participants were cautioned to use judgment when deciding to include special terms in annotations, and to consider whether they truly help users or cause them to have greater difficulty with keyword searches. For example, one annotation on the second handout contained the word "Dalit" (an "untouchable" person in Indian society). Participants discussed whether including this term in an annotation for a fictional work would help users looking for novels about Dalits, or merely increase the number of irrelevant results for researchers conducting keyword searches for scholarly materials on this topic. According to Johnson, users are easily overwhelmed by vast numbers of irrelevant results during keyword searches, and often have difficulty evaluating which resources would meet their needs. Thus, it is important to consider one’s audience when deciding whether to include such terms in summary notes.
Finally, Johnson led the audience in creating annotations for two Websites on his third handout-- an overview of the "Chipko Movement" in India, and the "about" page and contents pages for the Digital South Asia Library. Each annotation created during the workshop consisted of a brief description of the subject of the particular site, which included important key terms (names of geographic areas and agencies), and a list of features and resources to be found on the Websites. Broad and redundant terms ("environment," and "online") were avoided, as well as the term "full text," since libraries often use full text content as a selection criterion. While Johnson initially used complete sentences, workshop participants recommended using phrases.
Overall, I found this workshop to be interesting and informative. It provided an excellent opportunity for librarians to share their insights, observations and strategies for writing effective annotations. In particular, as the instructor was not a cataloger, it was interesting to learn how annotators at the Digital Asia Library approached this task differently from library catalogers. In this way, the workshop provided an opportunity for both sides to learn from each other.
** Handouts provided only to participants
Cataloging Electronic Resources: AACR Chapters 9 and 12
Presented by Steve Miller
University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee Libraries
--reported by Kelley McGrathSteve Miller provided an excellent overview of the 2001 and 2002 changes to AACR2 and how they affect electronic resource cataloging. He began by summarizing the 2001 changes to Chapter 9, such as rule 0.24’s requirement to describe all aspects of an item, the new GMD "electronic resource," and the option to use conventional terminology in the 300 field.
Ball State University
The bulk of the presentation focused on the much-anticipated new AACR2 Chapter 12 and integrating resources. Miller provided tentative examples of best practices, but warned that the practical details of implementation are still being worked out and said that catalogers need to stay tuned for more definitive versions.
The new category of integrating resources applies only to remote-access electronic resources, so the focus of the discussion was on Websites, most of which were previously considered monographic. Some Websites will still be considered monographs and e-journals will continue to be treated as serials, but the majority of Websites will now fall into the new category of "integrating resources." Miller provided a useful chart showing the relationships between serials, monographs, and integrating resources. He covered both the rules for creating a new record for an integrating resource and the rules for updating an existing record for an integrating resource when information has changed. Since cataloging departments are unlikely to have the resources to regularly revisit sites to check for changes, updates will most likely take place during the copy cataloging process or as reference librarians, patrons, or link checkers note a change. It was also mentioned that one way to search for sites, which were cataloged under an old name, is to search by URL. Some participants expressed concern about who would be able to update information about integrating resources on utilities, in particular, in OCLC.
Miller also introduced the fixed fields and other MARC fields traditionally associated with serials cataloging (such as 362), which will be used for integrating resource records, but are currently unfamiliar and intimidating for many catalogers with monographic backgrounds. He described some of the problems associated with establishing dates for electronic resources and provided example of ways of handling common situations, but also stated that further guidance is needed in this area. Since 008 BLvl fixed field "i" for integrating resource is not yet available, catalogers should continue to use BLvl "m" for integrating resources until its authorization. There was also discussion of how many and what kinds of changes make an integrating resource a new work, which would require a new record. There seems to be no definitive answer to this question. Miller also distributed some useful handouts on MARC coding for electronic resources and some practice exercises. This was an informative and timely introduction to important recent changes in electronic resource cataloging.
PowerPoint Presentation | Code Guide (.doc) | Illustrations (.doc) | Workform (.doc)
Cataloging Graphic Materials
Presented by Nancy B. Olson
--reported by Michaela BrennerNancy Olson promised that, in these two hours, we would learn all there was to cataloging graphic materials, but before we began, we had the pleasure to be among the first to see the brand new AACR2.
The new AACR2 has several sensible improvements, like the new three-hole binding and the promise to make it easy to add amendments without overlapping pages. Ms. Olson brought to our attention a couple of well-hidden, but significant changes. What was formerly 1.4D4 was deleted, and 1.1B1 now instructs, what had already been practice for Chapter 7, namely, to exclude introductory words and to go straight to the title. After "reading it several times" and after "reading all related LCRIs", Ms. Olson was still rather displeased about the new Chapter 12, which is somewhat overwhelming, and said: "If you don’t understand it, maybe it will make you feel better that I didn’t understand it either, and I have to teach it."
Chapter 8, graphic materials, includes a very wide range of two-dimensional material. There were no changes made to Chapter 8 at this point. The most important source for guidance is Graphic Materials : Rules for Describing Original Items and Historical Collections by Elisabeth Betz Parker. Unfortunately, this book is out of print, but the current edition is available online at:
With different example posters, Ms. Olson led us in detail through fixed and variable fields. Often, there is not much information available regarding title, publisher and artist. Another difficulty is the assigning of a GMD that actually makes sense. The only GMD available for a poster, for example, is [picture]. Ms. Olson cautioned us not to use homemade GMDs, but rather leave them out if it would serve to avoid confusion. To make up for the lack of GMDs, there is a long list of SMDs. Notes also are great possibilities to add all the extra information the user may need.
Ms. Olson then briefly talked about digitizing an art collection and pointed out that setting up guidelines was the most important step. Generally, the original item is cataloged, and fields for electronic resources are added. The pattern is similar to microform cataloging.
There were not many questions left at the end of this clear and detailed presentation. Even for a beginner, it was very easy to follow. Ms. Olson had kept her initial promise.
Presented by Mary Lynette Larsgaard
University of California, Santa Barbara
--reported by Allison M. SleemanMs. Larsgaard began the workshop by distributing a map and opaque scalefinder (natural scale indicator-- a necessary tool for map catalogers) and had participants open their maps, thereby demonstrating the importance of having a large space to catalog maps. She provided some helpful information about where to order materials and locate information useful to map catalogers. This included the address from which to order the plastic natural scale indicators, which we had received courtesy of the vendor Map Link. Natural scale indicators can be ordered from:
University of Virginia
Charles Conway Some useful URLs for map catalogers are:
Department of Geography
Memorial University of Newfoundland
St. John’s, Newfoundland, A1B 3X9
Western Association of Map Libraries’ Map Librarian’s Toolbox:
Date Codes for Maps, compiled by Phil Hoehn:
DMS Converter (which converts geographic coordinates from degrees, minutes, and seconds to decimal degrees):
MARC21 description of 342 field
Ms. Larsgaard was very familiar with the changes in Chapter 3, having been active in collecting and submitting rule change proposals. There are three basic kinds of changes in Chapter 3:
She emphasized substantive changes and concentrated on the parts of the bibliographic record that were different for cartographic materials.
- changes necessitated by cartographic materials in electronic form;
- miscellaneous changes to rules to reflect cataloging practice;
- editorial changes.
Most of the substantive changes occur in MARC Area 3, tag 255 for mathematical data including scale and MARC Area 5, the 300 field. Handouts were provided, covering the specifics of these fields.
Highlights of major changes in Area 3 are:
Highlights of changes in Area 5 are:
- Those dealing with scale:
- If the scale cannot be determined easily (i.e., is neither given nor can be figured using a natural scale indicator), the terminology "Scale not given" should be used. "Scale indeterminable" is to be used when one tries to determine the scale by matching the map with map(s) of known scale in the collection. (3.3B1)
- Terms (3.3B5, 3.3B6, 3.3B7):
- "Scale varies" – used when the scale changes considerably in one map from the center to the outside edges (such as occurs in some German maps of metropolitan areas with a larger scale for the center city)
- "Scales differ" – used when there is more than one map with more than one scale
- "Scales vary" – should not be used.
- Those dealing with coordinates (3.3D1):
- Coordinates can be given in decimal degrees, decimal minutes, and decimal seconds, although the same method should be used for all the coordinates in a coordinate statement
- Coordinates can be given either for a bounding box (as one might use for Colorado), bounding rectangle (Wyoming), or a polygon (California).
- Minuses (-) and pluses (+) can be used instead of just W, E, N, and S
- Raster/vector and file type can be given in field 352 (3.3F, new rule).
She then gave some general information and advice about cataloging maps, including 3 alternatives for cataloging a sheet, which contained 2 maps of the same size:
- The new lists of terms, which can be used as the specific material designations in the 300 field include: atlas, diagram, globe, map, model, profile, remote-sensing image, section, view. (3.5B1)
- Clarification of the terms map and sheet (3.5B2):
Map = the genre term, the intellectual content
Sheet = the format term, the carrier/form on which the content is presented
- List of elements, which can be used in 300 subfield b (3.5C1-3.5C8), are given and described
Latitude and longitude were also discussed. Lines of latitude are always parallel; longitude is not since the lines become closer together as one gets towards the top of a map/globe. This was demonstrated on an inflatable globe. When a cataloger is listing the coordinates, it is easiest to remember left then right for longitude; top then bottom for latitude.
- Use 2 separate records.
- Consider both maps to be main maps, and put both titles in the 245 field; however, problems occur when writing the notes and indicating which note pertains to which map since there is no verso.
- Decide that one map is the main map, and describe the other map as being on the verso (Larsgaard’s preferred method).
Ms. Larsgaard uses degrees of latitude, then statute miles most often when using a natural scale indicator. She instructed the class in how to determine the scale of a map using latitude with the scale indicator.
The most accurate scale is in the center of the map.
The 342 and 343 fields, described in MARC21, are generally used for electronic cartographic materials. They are necessary for letting users know what kind of software is needed. Put this information in the catalog record if it is clearly stated such as in the readme file.
The new Chapter 3 is an improvement over the "old" Chapter 3, reflecting what map catalogers have been doing for the last 20 years.
In closing, Ms. Larsgaard announced that the second edition of Cartographic Materials : A Manual of Interpretation for AACR2, prepared by the Anglo-American Cataloging Committee for Cartographic Materials, will be published in loose-leaf format by ALA publications next year. The 1982 edition has been out-of-print for quite some time.
Chapter 3 of AACR2R (.doc)
Cataloging with AMIM
Presented by Jane D. Johnson
UCLA Film and Television Archive
--reported by Mary HuismannJane Johnson provided a most interesting overview of cataloging with AMIM, which is the acronym for Archival Moving Image Materials : A Cataloging Manual, 2nd ed. (Washington D.C. : Library of Congress, 2000). AMIM was first published in 1984, before the VHS era.
University of Minnesota
What is AMIM?
AMIM works within the general framework of AACR2 Chapter 7. It can be used with all types of moving image materials in any physical format.
A committee of the Library of Congress Motion Picture, Broadcasting, and Recorded Sound Division staff prepared AMIM. It is available from CDS (and is also on Cataloger’s Desktop). Updates can be found at the Cataloging Policy and Support Office Website: <http://lcweb.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/amimupd.html>.
AMIM can be compared to other cataloging manuals for specialized materials like Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books and Archives, Personal Papers, and Manuscripts. AMIM is used by a variety of constituencies, including moving image archives, libraries with archival collections, and archives cataloging current commercial releases.
Basic Cataloging Principles
Johnson then reviewed a few basic cataloging principles, including Cutter’s objects of the catalog (particularly the finding and collocating functions). A brief overview of the Functional Requirements of Bibliographic Records (FRBR) was given with examples.
The AMIM Approach
Preservation is a priority with AMIM. The inclusion of multiple manifestations ("copies") on a single record facilitates comparison. There is also an emphasis on provenance, history of works, and the relationship between expressions of a work. Since the description is based on the original expression of a work, the cataloger must be prepared to do research.
Layout of the Rules
The rules in AMIM are laid out similar to AACR2. In addition, AMIM contains six appendices, glossary, bibliography and index. AMIM refers to AACR2 for many things, including punctuation, abbreviations, GMDs, series, and sound recordings.
AMIM Strengths and Complications
AMIM’s strengths include: expression-based cataloging, entry of television programs, detailed rules for series titles (including television), supplied titles, breaking conflicts using uniform title, guidance on outtakes, trailers, etc. and for choice and placement of statements of responsibility, what constitutes a new version, notes, special rules for release and broadcast, detailed physical descriptions. It also addresses ambiguous terms specific to moving images.
Expression-based cataloging-- a strength of AMIM is also a complication. The description of an item is based on the original release not the item in hand, necessitating research by the cataloger. A change in title alone does not warrant a new record (only change in content), and the title on the item is not necessarily recorded in the title area. Examples of problematic re-release and reissue titles were given. Other complications include uniform title rules that do not always lead to a logical index display, the non-use of parallel titles, and the use of AMIM can be a barrier to shared cataloging. The underlying assumption of AMIM is that the title in hand is unique and the agency holds the original.
The workshop concluded with a brief cataloging exercise, using AMIM. A handout of the presentation slides and a handout summarizing cataloging principles, differences between AMIM1 and AMIM2, and a list of AMIM features were distributed to participants.
PowerPoint Presentation | Handouts (.doc)
Advanced Realia Workshop
Presented by Bobby Ferguson
East Baton Rouge Parish Library
--reported by Ian FaircloughThis workshop was definitely "hands-on" and those present had a challenging array of objects to catalog. These included:
Marion (Ohio) Public Library
And mention must also be made of a ghoulish-looking device consisting of a flute-like metal tube with sets of holes, at the end of which was attached a serrated bar which curved around, ending in a half-inch metal ball. This object was supposedly used in a medical procedure on the urinary tract (under anesthesia, one would hope). Anyone having further information on this device is invited to contact the presenter!
- a quilted angel, on a heart-shaped base which became the angel's wings (a wig and halo were missing)
- a corn husk doll made in 1902 by an aunt as a toy
- a lead sinker
- a piece of petrified wood
- a sand dollar (in almost perfect condition)
- a musk turtle shell
- a fossil of a small minnow embedded in a rock
- a hand-cast bronze wombat from Australia
- a unicorn, bearing the words "solid brass" on the bottom
- a lotus pod with seeds inside
- a hand-carved jade dagger (a replica of an ancient sword)
- an amber ring, embedded in which was an eight-legged bug
- the tooth of an unidentified animal from New Guinea
- a wasp's nest (minus the wasps)
- a pill maker, consisting of two wooden parts that are rubbed together
- a ball-point pen from Kazakhstan, in the shape of a cultural dress
- a necklace, of hand-made sterling silver with malachite inlay
One object for cataloging was provided by this reporter, a British 50-pence coin, which, in addition to the distinctive rounded heptagonal form, also bears an end-on picture of an open book with the words, "Public Libraries 1850-2000". This item differed from all the others in that it actually bears a title, statement of responsibility, and publication date! An OCLC master record (#50767237) has been prepared for it.
Another item was represented by a "surrogate" photograph--a lion's wig from the movie, The Wizard of Oz. In addition to these items, a copy of OCLC's workform for realia was distributed, along with numerous examples of bibliographic records, some of which may have been duplicates. Since description of realia is dependent so greatly on cataloger-provided description, identification of duplicates is a fine art.
After discussion of the items and of the terms "realia," "artifact," and "replica," the participants worked in small groups to provide draft bibliographic records. Typical of data elements in this format are: the absence of a publication statement, each item usually being one of its kind and therefore unpublished; the need for brackets in almost all cases to indicate that a title was provided by the cataloger; and the importance of providing subject access (if possible, multiple subject headings are recommended) in the absence of other access points.
A basic principal for cataloging realia is: "If you know it, put it." This is because, unlike other media, very little information is usually available for description. In conclusion, participants discussed the records they had created, giving opportunity for further input from others present.
Information | Sample Bibliographic Records | Workform
Cataloging Digital Sound Files: AACR2 Chapters 6 and 9
Presented by Robert B. Freeborn
Pennsylvania State University
--reported by Gayle PorterRobert Freeborn began by defining and offering examples of various types of sound files, including MP3, AAC, RealAudio, and WMA. Freeborn said that both MP3 files and digital sound files are popular because they can be compressed, and it is easier to send a compressed file for video streaming purposes. He gave examples of various types of MP3 players and explained the purpose and the process of file compression. Other concepts defined included, ID3 tags (the sound file’s catalog record); digital automated music (DAM) CDs, pocket or mini PCs, which are similar to a palm pilot but are produced by Microsoft, and an "enhanced" CD, which is a sound recording that has been enhanced.
Purdue University Libraries
Freeborn provided a list of resources about the topic, including sources for direct-access and remote-access files, the Web citation for MLA’s Copyright for Music Librarians <http://copyright.musiclibraryassoc.org/> (additional information on music copyright can be found at http://www.musicproductionschools.net/resources/copyright-resources/ and the citation for Scott Hacker’s book on MP3. He referred to the Indiana University variations project that involves adding notes about streaming audio files. He advised librarians to establish a collection development policy for sound files.
Freeborn explained a number of rules and provided interpretations from both Chapters 6 and 9 in coordination with their respective MARC tags. These include:
Freeborn advised us to follow standards and to be consistent in our local catalogs. Using nonstandard practices might come back to haunt us later when migrating to another system, and the migration process could hinder the local enhancement of records.
- The 007 field includes physical description of the item; examples include “lossy” codes (for information lost during compression).
- The smaller the encoding level, the more sound can be put on the disc, but the quality tends to be poorer; the inverse is also true.
- In the past, automated systems could not read publisher’s numbers so this information needed to go in a note; now systems can usually read these numbers, so they can be put in the 028 field.
- If the title and all other information about the recording is in the record, do not put a language note; these notes are needed only when the item has something different, e.g., translation, etc. Put a code for the predominant language in the fixed field and also in the 041 field, along with the codes for all other languages used in the item.
- As for the choice of GMDs-- if the entire item requires a computer, use the GMD “electronic resource;” if only part of it requires a computer, use “sound recording.”
- Put the time in the 300 field only when cataloging one full work; if separate parts have times but no total time, make a note with the time information for each part.
- Currently, there is no 300 field used for describing remote-access items, but there is discussion about reinstating it for such items, because the information is not as useful in a note as it would be in the 300 field.
- Catalog records for remote access items typically lack class numbers and holdings/item information, which would depend on local decisions-- whether the item is for personal use or institutional use.
- Sound recordings never have color.
- Add accompanying information only if it is available on the item itself; use what information is on the item.
- If no type of computer is specified, use the term "PC".
- When applicable, add a 500 note that the item is a standard compact disc; also, add 500 notes for performers.
- For an audio play, should the director/producer be put in the 508 field? Freeborn said that the 508 would be used for a digital video, not for sound files.
Several examples of cataloging records for both direct-access and remote-access sound recordings were shown. One such example (no. 2 in the handout) described a remote-access non-sound recording. Freeborn explained that the library bought access to this title, and users were allowed to download it to their own, or the Library’s equipment. The 538 field for this item described the type of equipment needed to use the item. A possible local note in the record might be: "Access provided by Library’s MP3 player."
Freeborn said that people could access files that are available in more than one format and download them from the Website, audible.com. Appropriate notes should be made about this in the catalog record. The Kalamazoo Public Library has an agreement with audible.com to display records in their catalog and to circulate MP3 players.
Robert Freeborn’s detailed presentation was assisted by his handout that paralleled his Powerpoint presentation on the topic.
Videorecordings Cataloging Workshop
Presented by Jay Weitz
--reported by Joan Colquhoun McGormanThis was a practical workshop for catalogers who already had knowledge of the basics of visual materials cataloging using AACR2 and the MARC format. Jay Weitz briefly reviewed the background of the rules. Although AACR1 required that motion pictures be entered under title, the rules concerning works of shared responsibility in AACR2 usually lead to the same result.
Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary
Certain problem aspects of cataloging videorecordings were discussed in some detail.
There was considerable discussion about variations in information presented in the sources of information for videorecordings and how this has led to multiple records in OCLC for works that are most likely the same bibliographic entity. Catalogers must be alert to differences among information from title frames of the video, the container and labels. The chief source is still the title frame sequence on the film. If any other source--such as the container or label--is used instead, that source must be specified in a note. Differences in titles in the various sources should be recorded and given access using the 246 field.
Names of publishers, distributors, producers, production companies, etc. can often be very confusing. Depending on the cataloger’s interpretation of the information, the same names might appear in field 245 $c in one record and in 260 $b in another. Different catalogers can interpret the same information differently. Even the same cataloger can interpret the same information differently at different times.
Differences that justify a new record include: black and white vs. color vs. colorized, sound vs. silent, dubbed vs. subtitled, different language versions, different formats (VHS vs. Beta vs. DVD, and NTSC vs. PAL color reproduction standards), and significant differences in length which might be due to differences in content, such as the inclusion of restored scenes.
Differences that do not justify a new record include: absence or presence of multiple publishers, distributors, etc., as long as one on the item matches one on the record, and changes in date which relate only to the packaging.
Confusion over interpretation of such differences has resulted in OCLC having many records that are probably duplicates. When in doubt, catalogers should use an existing record whenever possible, and edit it for local use.
Having some knowledge of the history of various formats of videorecordings can help catalogers avoid errors in recording dates. Regardless of when the filming was done, the publication date cannot precede the introduction of the format. Therefore, it is useful to remember that Beta began in May 1975, VHS in September 1977, and DVD in March 1997.
Although some experienced video catalogers seem concerned about cataloging DVDs, Weitz stressed that the same rules and procedures are used for cataloging DVDs as for any other video material.
He gave some guidelines to follow for DVDs. The GMD is [videorecording]. The SMD to be used in the 300 field is videodisc with the size (4 3/4 in.) given in subfield c. Use the System Details note (538) to record "DVD" plus any applicable special characteristics of sound, color, etc. This is also the field to note information about regional restrictions, which are indicated on the DVD by a picture of a globe with a number superimposed on it (1 means United States and Canada)
Since DVDs have such an immense capacity, they often have substantially more material (trailers, documentary material, outtakes) than comparable VHS releases and should be given Date Type: s. A note should be included about the date of the original release. DVDs often have various optional sets of subtitles and closed captions, which should be recorded in fields 546 and 041.
The last part of the workshop was devoted to streaming video. This is an Internet data transfer technique that allows the user to see and hear audio and video files without lengthy download times. The "host" or source "streams" small packets of information over the Internet to the user. Few catalogers have experience with streaming video yet. Cataloging this format will require catalogers to use rules and MARC format fields for both videorecordings and computer files. Assistance with learning terminology for this new format can be found at the Website:
The following are some guidelines for streaming videos. Use Form s for electronic. Use field 006 for computer file. Use field 007, which is repeatable, for videorecording and for remote access computer file. The GMD is [electronic resource]. Field 300 is not used. Include a 500 note “Streaming video” and, optionally, the duration. The 538 field should specify which streaming video player is required, along with any other requirements, such as modem speed. An additional 538 field is needed to specify the mode of access, e.g., World Wide Web. The 856 field provides the URL needed to access the streaming video being described.
Although new formats present new challenges, Weitz encouraged catalogers to apply existing cataloging rules with confidence and said, "Don’t agonize!"
PowerPoint Presentation | Examples (.doc)
NOTE: You must have "ALA BT courier font" to view the Examples document (examples are also include in the PowerPoint Presentation). If you don't have the ALA BT courier font, it is available with instructions at http://www.indiana.edu/~libtserv/staff/auto/unicorn.html
Access Points for Non-Human Actors
Discussion with Nancy Olson
--reported by Gayle PorterEqual access for non-human actors in cataloging and authority work
Purdue University Libraries
"Max is an actor; the fact that he’s a dog is irrelevant" stated Nancy Olson, in reference to the long-time need to make added entries for various types of non-human actors, which is not allowed under current cataloging rules (AACR2 21.29), as it is for human actors. Nancy desires rule changes that would improve retrieval and access of information on such actors and the materials that feature them. She made suggestions for improving this situation; and gave examples of non-human actors, pointing out that although actors can be humans, some characters were meant to be non-humans.
Nancy became interested in the added entries issue years ago, when she set up the cataloging of about 200 of Mr. Rogers’ television programs for the archival collection at the University of Pittsburgh. She obtained scripts of the programs, lists of all puppet characters used on the program, and started watching it to become more familiar with it. Nancy consulted with librarians at the University of Pittsburgh and with Ben Tucker, then principal audiovisual cataloger at the Library of Congress. At first, Tucker repeated the Library of Congress policy to permit subject entries but not added entries for animals, puppets, cartoon characters, and the like. Nancy argued that the puppet characters were the actors (not the subjects), who presented the various themes in the TV programs and therefore, neither subject (650) nor genre (655) headings were appropriate. She said, "many times the character in question is not the subject of the work being cataloged but is an actor playing a role." Tucker relented and allowed Nancy to create added entries (with discretion) for the actors (e.g., 700 1_ $a [name of character], $c the owl).
Last year, Nancy began presenting more workshops on cataloging DVDs/videos/films, and in the process, she found many titles that included non-human actors. She taught one such workshop in southern California, to about 100 people who were very knowledgeable about films, and they agreed that non-human actors should have added entries, not subject entries. Nancy wondered how people in the archival moving image world feel about this issue. She said that a worthy goal would be to find all the films in which a non-human character had appeared.
Nancy provided many examples of non-human actors from TV shows and films that should have added entries, in which the following examples, with pertinent considerations, were included. There are many animal characters, such as Max as Milo the dog (who has appeared in many TV roles as well as in the film, The Mask); Barbara Bush’s dog Millie (who wrote a book); Lassie; Mr. Ed, the talking horse; Eddie, the dog on Frasier; Joey the dog who played Benji in the film Benji and Sneaky Pie Brown, Rita Mae Brown’s feline co-author. There are also mechanical characters, such as C3PO from the Star Wars films, played by a human who won an Academy Award under his own name for his work in the film and thus could get an added entry under his own name for it. There are animated characters such as Donald Duck, yet Donald Duck cartoons can have a genre heading; Charlie Brown, Lucy, Snoopy, etc., who are comic strip characters also portrayed in dozens of TV programs. There are also puppets--the person who played Kermit the frog could have acted as other characters in other works. As a contrast, the term "Muppets" is given a corporate name entry (710); ships and spaceships can have main and added entry because the ship is the author of its own log; and spirits can have added entries (per AACR2 21.26). Another category is fictional characters, like Lord Peter Wimsey or Sherlock Holmes, who can have a genre entry (655), but the actors who play these roles can have added entries for their own names. There are now even digitized actors, such as Simone--which brings up a complex issue: is her character a real person or not? Her role was meant to portray a non-human but was created using a few human females. Writer-director Andrew Niccol asked (on the Simone Website): "Is she a real fake or a fake fake?"
(See <http://www.wired.com/news/digiwood/0,1412,54691,00.html> -- "For Simone, 'Fake' Is Flattery" by Michael Stroud.)
The key questions are: who’s the audience for this issue? and, who would benefit from this? In the current searching scenario, if one wanted to perform a name/author search with the name of the non-human character (this would require the name fields 100, 600, or 700 to be present and indexed), one would not retrieve anything. Otherwise, one would need to perform a title or keyword search for the character’s name, which would work if the name were indexed elsewhere in the catalog record, such as in the title field. For instance, a title or keyword search for the name "Benji" would result in hits for the movie entitled Benji, as long as this film was in the library’s collection. Another method might be a keyword search for the name, which would work if the notes area (511 field) included the character’s name and was indexed.
Nancy urged us to pursue this issue as a proposal to OLAC’s CAPC, to CC:DA and to the Joint Steering Committee on Cataloging. She would welcome additional examples and more dialogue on this issue. She plans to write about this issue on the OLAC List and looks forward to more conversation.
Handout (.html) or (.doc)
Book Group in a Bag
Dakota County Library, Eagan, Minnesota
People are discovering how enjoyable it can be to read and discuss books with others in their neighborhood, church, workplace, or community. As a response to the increasing popularity of book groups in the Twin City metropolitan area, Dakota County Library is providing a "Book Group in a Bag" (book group discussion kits) for library customers making it easier for groups of people to have access to a title at the same time. Each kit contains ten copies of one title, discussion questions about the title, information about the author, a brochure on how to start or improve a book group, and complimentary bookmarks-all packed in a canvas bag.
Cataloging and Processing Procedures | Circulation Policies and Procedures |Implementation |Titles List |Websites
Relocating and Reclassifying Our Feature Films Collection:
From Closed Stacks to Blockbuster Video
Annie Wu & Susannah BenedettiWilliam Madison Randall Library recently established a browsable feature films recreational collection, corresponding to the establishment of the Film Studies Program on Campus. All of the library's 2837 feature films videos have been moved to open stacks, and 1400 feature film videos have been reclassified into genre categories in just 1 1/2 months. With pictures, Web sites, power points and handouts, this poster presentation will share with audience our innovative approach to issues and problems we faced, our efficient work procedures, our feature films reclassification and subject access guidelines, our staff cooperation on this project, our creative use of the local system features to facilitate our job, and the benefits of relocating and reclassifying this collection.
William Madison Randall Library, University of North Carolina at Wilmington
PowerPoint Presentation | Handouts (.ppt) | Handouts (.html)
Saving the Earth and Your Wrists: Automating Name Authority Control with Macros and CatME
Ruth Roazen and Barbara Cohen
Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff Arizona
NAU's new authority control protocol includes printing the III authority report to e-mail, saving the names section in a TextPad .txt file, running a specialized regular expressions macro to convert the full text report to a list of derived search keys for CatME, followed by importing the saved .txt search key file into CatME and batch searching for the authority records. This process has saved time, wrists, trees and provided the opportunity to do authority control work from any place with a computer and internet connection. We have also inspired others to consider ways that information can be listed and processed to improve searching and bibliographic services workflow. Because of this innovation we have been able to evaluate and retool other processes and increase our efficiency, productivity and flexibility.
Link to PowerPoint Presentation and Macro
The Ten Commandments of Special Formats Cataloging
College of DuPage
As special formats experts (or aspiring ones, as the case may be), we are often called upon to share our expertise in unlocking the mysteries of cataloging and processing these challenging materials. This slide presentation focuses on some of the basic tenets of cataloging special formats, including videos, DVDs, kits, electronic resources, and accompanying software in books. It may be tailored to suit a general audience of media center administrators or library trustees (with nary a word about MARC tags, subfields, and delimeters uttered) or developed more fully as a cataloging training tool for library staff, library school students, or fellow catalogers. I have found that this somewhat irreverent approach to discussing the topic lessens the complexity, eases the anxiety, and provides for greater information retention. I offer a little biblical soup for the cataloging soul.
Contact Mary Konkel for handouts at email@example.com
Last updated: January 9, 2003